法国手工业行会体系是与石料、木料、金属、皮革、纺织品以及食品相关的行业内传承知识及技能的一种独特方式。它的特殊之处在于,通过多种方式方法传授知识,如:国内外的学艺旅行(也称“环法”),入会仪式、以学校为基础的教学、习俗化的学艺等。手工业行会分三个群体,加起来总人数达到了近4万5千人。16岁或以上人士希望学习和/或在某一行业发展他们的技能,可以申请加入一个手工业行会。训练持续时间平均五年,学徒在学艺期间,要在法国国内外定期由一个城镇旅行到下一个城镇,发掘各类型知识并予以传播。为了证明自己已经有资格传授学到的知识,学徒必须完成一项“杰作”并由行会对其予以审查和评估。人们普遍认为,手工业行会是最后一家还在实行结合以下这些传统的组织,即:传授某些古老技艺、促使学艺者的技艺达到真正高超的水平、将个体的发展与学徒的培训紧密结合起来以及举行入会仪式等。

The French Handicraft Guild system is a unique way to pass on knowledge and skills in industries related to stone, wood, metal, leather, textiles and food. What is special about it is the transfer of knowledge through a variety of ways and means, such as: Academic travel at home and abroad (also known as Ring Law), initiation ceremonies, school-based teaching, customary learning, and so on. The Handicraft Guild is divided into three groups, bringing together a total of nearly 45,000 people. Persons aged 16 or above who wish to study and/or develop their skills in an industry may apply for membership in a handicraft guild. The duration of the training is an average of five years, during which the Apprentice regularly travels from one town to the next in France and abroad to explore and disseminate all types of knowledge. In order to prove that they are already qualified to impart the knowledge they have learned, apprentices must complete a masterpiece and review and evaluate it by the guild. It is generally accepted that the Handicraft Guild is the last organization to combine these traditions, namely, the teaching of certain ancient skills, the promotion of a truly superb level of academic skills, the close integration of individual development with apprenticeship training, and the holding of initiation ceremonies.

 

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