“巨人、动物或龙的巨大肖像的传统包含了节日流行表现和仪式表现的原始组合。这些肖像最早出现在14世纪末欧洲许多城镇的城市宗教中,并继续作为某些贝尔贾人身份的象征n(阿斯、布鲁塞尔、登德蒙德、梅切伦和蒙斯)和法国城镇(卡塞尔、杜埃、佩泽纳斯和塔拉斯孔),它们仍然保留着活的传统。巨龙是高达9米、重达350公斤的大型模型。它们代表神话中的英雄或动物、当代当地人物、历史、圣经或传奇人物或行业。圣乔治斗龙在蒙斯上演;查理曼大帝传说中的马巴亚德在丹德蒙德;还有在卡塞尔的中,受欢迎的家庭角色鲁兹·爸爸和鲁兹·马曼。表演通常混合了世俗和宗教仪式,每个城镇都有所不同,但总是遵循一个精确的仪式,巨人们在仪式中讲述城镇的历史、传说或生活。

巨人和龙活跃了受欢迎的节日,每年至少有一次他们是主要演员,因为每个雕像都有其特定的节日。他们表演历史场景,在大张旗鼓和穿着盛装的人们的伴奏下在街上跳舞。人群跟随队伍,许多参与者在节日的不同阶段帮助准备工作。考虑到所用材料的范围,建造一个巨人及其持续维护需要数月的工作和许多技术方面的专业知识。虽然这些表达方式不会立即消失,但它们确实受到了一些压力,例如市中心的重大变化和旅游业的增加,从而损害了节日的受欢迎和自发性质。

2008年度列入人类非物质文化遗产名录。

来源:联合国教科文组织亚太地区非物质文化遗产国际培训中心

 

The Rabinal Achí is a dynastic Maya drama, which developed in the fifteenth century and a rare example of preserved pre-Hispanic traditions. It comprises myths of origin and addresses popular and political subjects concerning the inhabitants of the region of Rabinal, expressed through masked dance, theatre and music.

The oral and written narrative is presented by a group of characters, who appear on a stage representing Maya villages, such as Kajyub’, the regional capital of the Rabinaleb’ in the fourteenth century. The narrative, divided into four acts, centres on a conflict between two major political entities in the region. The main characters are two princes, the Rabinal Achí and the K’iche Achí.The other characters are the king of Rabinaleb’, Job’Toj, and his servant, Achij Mun Achij Mun Ixoq Mun, who has both male and female traits, the green-feathered mother, Uchuch Q’uq’ Uchuch Raxon, and thirteen eagles and thirteen jaguars who represent the warriors of the fortress of Kajyub’. K’iche’ Achí is captured and put on trial for attempting to steal Rabinaleb’ children, a grave violation of Maya law.

Since colonization in the sixteenth century, the Rabinal Achí dance has been performed on Saint Paul’s day on 25 January. The festival is coordinated by members of cofradías, local brotherhoods responsible for running the community. By taking part in the dance, the living enter into “contact” with the dead, the rajawales, represented by masks. Recalling their ancestors is not simply a means of perpetuating the heritage of the past. It is also a vision of the future, since one day the living will join their ancestors.

The impact of armed conflict especially in the departamentos of Rabinal and K’iche has almost led to the disappearance of this dance. Today, it is especially threatened by the precarious economic state of the custodians and the community as a whole. It is also confronted with folklorization and trivialization, which seriously threaten the transmission of knowledge and values associated to the performance of this drama tradition.

Included in the list of human intangible cultural heritage in 2008.

Source: UNESCO International Training Center for intangible cultural heritage in the Asia Pacific Region

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