长期以来,喀山一直是高档地毯的中心,几乎三分之一的居民受雇于地毯制作,超过三分之二的地毯制作者是女性。地毯的编织过程从一个设计开始,从一系列已确立的风格中精心设计,包括花卉、树叶、树枝、动物和历史场景等主题。在被称为dar的织机上编织,经纱和纬纱由棉或丝制成。绒头是用独特的波斯语结将羊毛或丝线打结到经纱上,然后用一排编织的纬纱固定住,用梳子敲打。波斯语编织风格(也被称为不对称打结)在喀山的应用堪称精致,因此地毯背面的打结精细且均匀。喀山地毯的颜色来自各种天然染料,包括茜草根、核桃皮、石榴皮和藤叶。喀山地毯编织的传统技艺是在母亲和祖母的指导下,通过学徒制传给女儿们的。学徒制也是人们学习设计、染色、剪毛、织机制造和工具制造技能的手段。

2010年度列入人类非物质文化遗产名录。

来源:联合国教科文组织亚太地区非物质文化遗产国际培训中心

 

Long a centre for fine carpets, Kashan has almost one in three residents employed in carpet-making, with more than two-thirds of the carpet-makers being women. The carpet-weaving process starts with a design, elaborated from among a series of established styles, including motifs such as flowers, leaves, branches, animals and scenes taken from history. Woven on a loom known as adar,the warp and woof are of cotton or silk. The pile is made by knotting wool or silk yarns to the warp with the distinctive Farsi knot, then held in place by a row of the woven woof, and beaten with a comb. The Farsi weaving style (also known as asymmetrical knotting) is applied with exemplary delicacy in Kashan, so that the back side of the carpet is finely and evenly knotted. The colours of Kashan carpets come from a variety of natural dyes including madder root, walnut skin, pomegranate skin and vine leaves. The traditional skills of Kashan carpet weaving are passed down to daughters through apprenticeship under instruction from their mothers and grandmothers. Apprenticeship is also the means by which men learn their skills of designing, dyeing, shearing, loom-building and tool-making.

Included in the list of human intangible cultural heritage in 2010.

Source: UNESCO International Training Center for intangible cultural heritage in the Asia Pacific Region

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