蒙古包是哈萨克人和吉尔吉斯人的游牧住所。它有一个木制的圆形框架,上面覆盖着毛毡,用绳子编织,可以在短时间内轻松组装和拆卸。蒙古包制作知识的传承者是工匠,包括男人和女人,他们制作蒙古包及其内部装饰。蒙古包由天然和可再生的原材料制成。男人和他们的学徒用手制作木框架,以及木制、皮革、骨头和金属细节。女性制作室内装饰物和外部覆盖物,用传统的动物形态、植物或几何图案装饰。通常,她们在社区团体中工作,由经验丰富的女工匠监督,并采用编织、纺纱、编织、毡扎、刺绣、缝纫和其他传统手工艺技术。蒙古包创作涉及整个工匠群体,培养共同的人类价值观、建设性合作和创造性想象力。传统上,知识和技能是在家庭内部或从教师传递给学徒的。所有的庆典、仪式、出生、婚礼和葬礼都在蒙古包里举行。因此,蒙古包仍然是家庭和传统好客的象征,是哈萨克和吉尔吉斯民族身份的基础。

2014年度列入人类非物质文化遗产名录。

来源:联合国教科文组织亚太地区非物质文化遗产国际培训中心

 

The yurt is a nomadic dwelling used among the Kazakh and Kyrgyz peoples. It has a wooden circular frame covered with felt and braided with ropes, and can be easily assembled and dismantled within a short period of time. The bearers of yurt-making knowledge are craftspeople, both men and women, who produce yurts and their interior decorations. Yurts are made from natural and renewable raw materials. Men and their apprentices make the wooden frames by hand, along with wooden, leather, bone and metal details. Women make the interior decorations and exterior coverings, ornamented with traditional zoomorphic, vegetative or geometric patterns. As a rule, they work in community-based groups supervised by experienced women artisans, and employ weaving, spinning, braiding, felting, embroidering, sewing and other traditional handicraft techniques. Yurt creation involves the whole community of craftspeople, and fosters common human values, constructive cooperation and creative imagination. Traditionally, knowledge and skills are transmitted within families or from teachers to apprentices. All festivities, ceremonies, births, weddings and funeral rituals are held in a yurt. As such, the yurt remains a symbol of family and traditional hospitality, fundamental to the identity of the Kazakh and Kyrgyz peoples.

Included in the list of human intangible cultural heritage in 2014.

Source: UNESCO International Training Center for intangible cultural heritage in the Asia Pacific Region

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