“在吉尔吉斯游牧民族中,主要的文化表现形式是史诗叙事。吉尔吉斯史诗讲述者阿肯人的艺术结合了歌唱、即兴创作和音乐创作。史诗在宗教和私人节日、季节性仪式和国家节日中表演,并通过口头形式流传了几个世纪传输

吉尔吉斯史诗的价值主要在于其戏剧性的情节和哲学基础。它们代表了吉尔吉斯社会价值观、文化知识和历史的口头百科全书。吉尔吉斯最著名的史诗是有1000年历史的《玛纳斯三部曲》,这部史诗不仅因为篇幅长(比荷马的《伊利亚特》和《奥德赛》长16倍),而且内容丰富而值得注意。玛纳斯将事实和传说融为一体,使吉尔吉斯自九世纪以来的重要历史事件不朽。吉尔吉斯人还保存了40多部“较小”的史诗。虽然《玛纳斯》是一首独奏的叙事曲,但这些较短的作品通常是在柯穆兹(komuz)的伴奏下演奏的,柯穆兹是一种三弦的吉尔吉斯琵琶。每部史诗都有独特的主题、旋律和叙事风格。阿肯斯曾是备受尊敬的人物,他们在不同地区巡回演出,经常参加讲故事比赛。他们在叙事、表达性手势、语调和生动模仿方面的熟练程度受到赞赏,非常适合史诗充满情感的内容。

20世纪20年代,马纳斯三部曲的第一部分是根据伟大的史诗歌手萨金贝的口述以书面形式录制的。史诗仍然是吉尔吉斯身份的重要组成部分,并继续激励当代作家、诗人和作曲家;即使在今天,传统表演仍然与神圣的文化空间联系在一起。尽管现在的从业者越来越少,但阿肯斯大师仍在继续培训年轻学徒,并得到了吉尔吉斯斯坦政府最近支持的复兴计划的帮助。

 

2008年度列入人类非物质文化遗产名录。

来源:联合国教科文组织亚太地区非物质文化遗产国际培训中心

 

The predominant form of cultural expression among the Kyrgyz nomads is the narration of epics. The art of the Akyns, the Kyrgyz epic tellers, combines singing, improvisation and musical composition. The epics are performed at religious and private festivities, seasonal ceremonies and national holidays and have survived over the centuries by oral transmission.

The value of the Kyrgyz epics lies largely in their dramatic plots and philosophical underpinnings. They represent an oral encyclopaedia of Kyrgyz social values, cultural knowledge and history. The pre-eminent Kyrgyz epic is the 1000-year-old Manas trilogy, which is noteworthy not only for its great length (sixteen times longer than Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey), but also for its rich content. Blending fact and legend, the Manas immortalizes important events in Kyrgyz’s history since the ninth century. The Kyrgyzs have also preserved over forty “smaller” epics. While the Manas is a solo narration, these shorter works are generally performed to the accompaniment of the komuz, the three-stringed Kyrgyz lute. Each epic possesses a distinctive theme, melody and narrative style. Akyns were once highly respected figures who toured from region to region and frequently participated in storytelling contests. They were appreciated for their proficiency in narration, expressive gestures, intonation and lively mimicry, so well suited to the epics’ emotionally charged content.

During the 1920s, the first part of the Manas trilogy was recorded in written form based on the oral interpretation of the great epic singer, Sagynbay. The epics remain an essential component of Kyrgyz identity and continue to inspire contemporary writers, poets, and composers; even today, the traditional performances are still linked to sacred cultural spaces. Although there are fewer practitioners nowadays, master akyns continue to train young apprentices and are helped by recent revitalization initiatives supported by the Kyrgyz government.

 

Included in the list of human intangible cultural heritage in 2008.

Source: UNESCO International Training Center for intangible cultural heritage in the Asia Pacific Region

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