Khömei(呼麦)是一种起源于蒙古西部阿尔泰山脉的歌唱形式。表演者模仿自然的声音,同时发出两种不同的人声:伴随着连续的嗡嗡声,歌手发出和声的旋律。Khömei(呼麦)字面意思是咽,据信是从鸟类身上学到的,鸟类的灵魂是萨满实践的核心。在蒙古,大量的Khömei技术分为两种主要风格:kharkhiraa(深Khömei)和isgeree Khömei(口哨Khömei)。在《哈赫伊拉》中,歌手以正常的声音演唱持续低音,同时强调低音或次谐波一个八度以下。在《伊斯盖雷·科梅》中,强调的是持续低音基本音之上的泛音,从而产生了更高的音调。在这两种情况下,持续低音的声带都非常紧绷,旋律是通过调节口腔的大小和形状、打开和关闭嘴唇以及移动舌头来创造的。蒙古游牧民族在各种社会场合表演科美,从盛大的国家仪式到家庭节日活动。放牧时,人们也会在蒙古包里唱歌,哄婴儿入睡。传统上,Khömei是通过口述从持证人传递给学习者,或通过师傅传递给学徒。




Khöömei is a form of singing originating in western Mongolia, in the Altai mountains. The performer imitates sounds of nature, simultaneously emitting two distinct vocal sounds: along with a continuous drone, the singer produces a melody of harmonics. Khöömei literally means pharynx, and it is believed to have been learned from birds, whose spirits are central to shamanic practices. The multitude of Khöömei techniques in Mongolia are grouped within two main styles: thekharkhiraa(deep Khöömei) andisgereeKhöömei (whistled Khöömei). Inkharkhiraathe singer sings a drone in a normal voice, while emphasizing the undertone or subharmonic one octave below. InisgereeKhöömei, it is the overtones above the fundamental note of the drone that are emphasized, creating a higher-pitched whistle. In both cases, the drone is produced with very taut vocal cords, and the melody is created by modulating the size and shape of the mouth cavity, opening and closing the lips and moving the tongue. Khöömei is performed by Mongolian nomads in a variety of social occasions, from grand state ceremonies to festive household events. Khöömei is also sung during herding, and inside the yurt to lull babies to sleep. Traditionally, Khöömei is transmitted orally from bearer to learner, or via master-to-apprentice.

Included in the list of human intangible cultural heritage in 2010.

Source: UNESCO International Training Center for intangible cultural heritage in the Asia Pacific Region

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