江陵端午祭,是韩国江陵地区农民在端午节气时间里特有的一种巫俗祭祀活动,并不是特指一种节日。1967 年被指定为韩国第13号重要无形文化遗产和重要无形文物,20051125日被世界教科文组织指定为人类口头和无形遗产。江陵端午祭以大关岭祭神为始拉开帷幕,为期二十天至一个月。活动期间将会举行各种巫法和祭祀典礼,并会举行跳绳、假面制作等传统游戏和体验活动以及精彩的巫俗表演、假面舞、农乐表演等。

江陵端午祭是如今韩国保存比较完整的传统节日习俗之一。原来在韩国许多地区都有端午习俗,后来随着社会的发展渐渐消失了,唯独江陵地区完整地保存着。在江陵地区,端午祭有着繁琐的祭祀仪式。如果从迎神的“前夜祭”算起,一般要举行五个昼夜;如果从“山神祭”算起到送神止,时间长达20多天;如果从“谨酿神酒”算起,则长达一个月的时间。

江陵端午祭的程序是从酿制神酒开始的。农历四月五日,人们用江陵旧官府“七事堂”发放的大米和米曲子酿制神酒,准备端午祭时敬神和饮用;四月十五日举行“大关岭山神祭”和“国师城隍祭”,祭祀结束后,锯一段神木,人们将青红礼缎挂在上面,然后在神木的引导下,组成迎神行列,农历五月初三傍晚时分,回到江陵国师女城隍祠(郑家女)接受“奉安祭”,也就是端午祭的“前夜祭”。祭祀结束后,将大关岭山神和国师城隍牌位送往南大川露天祭场。从初四到初七,每天的早晨举行“朝奠祭”。江陵端午祭的祭祀仪式分“儒教式祭仪”和“巫俗祭仪”两种。儒教式祭仪以奉读汉文祝祷词的形式进行,祝祭的内容涉及除祸招福、健康安宁、治愈疾病、农渔丰收、禽畜繁盛等。儒祭之后,开始伴随歌舞戏剧表演进行的“巫俗祭仪”,直至深夜。

韩国申报的江陵端午祭巴黎时间24日被联合国教科文组织正式确定为“人类传说及无形遗产著作”。民间开始出现:中韩端午“申遗”之争以韩国的胜利而告终的说法。

专家辟谣

对此,中国民俗学会秘书长、北大教授高丙中在接受记者采访时介绍:韩国江陵端午祭与我们的端午节不是一回事。韩国的端午祭实际上是由舞蹈、萨满祭祀、民间艺术展示等内容构成,这与中国人吃粽子、划龙舟、纪念屈原是两回事。惟一的相同点是时间框架,都是在中国的端午节期间举行,而具体日期也不相同。

“抢注”这种说法一是误解了非物质文化遗产申报的目的,二是把“申遗”和注册商标混为一谈,“‘申遗’是把文化的代表作品提出来,让全世界都能知道和分享。这与商标注册是两码事,不是说韩国江陵端午祭‘申遗’成功,以后中国人再过端午节就要交费了。”

中山大学中国非物质文化遗产研究中心的宋俊华博士表示,韩国江陵端午祭与我国端午节不是一回事,韩国“申遗”成功后,我国的端午节仍可“申遗”。因此,不存在两国的“申遗”之争,以及韩国“胜出”的概念。“媒体似乎是在有意炒作这个话题,以此吸引眼球。”

Jiangling Dragon Boat Festival is a kind of witchcraft sacrificial activity peculiar to farmers in Jiangling area of Korea during the Dragon Boat Festival, not a special festival. In 1967, it was designated as the 13th important intangible cultural heritage and important intangible cultural relics of Korea, and on November 25, 2005, it was designated as the oral and intangible heritage of mankind by the World Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. The Dragon Boat Festival in Jiangling began with the sacrifice to the gods of Daguanling, which lasted from 20 days to one month. During the event, a variety of witchcraft and sacrificial ceremonies will be held, and traditional games and experience activities such as rope skipping, masquerade making, as well as wonderful witchcraft performances, masquerade dances, farm music performances will be held.

Dragon Boat Festival in Jiangling is one of the traditional festival customs preserved in Korea nowadays. The Dragon Boat Festival custom originally existed in many parts of Korea, but gradually disappeared with the development of society. Only the Jiangling area was completely preserved. In Jiangling area, the Dragon Boat Festival has a complicated ritual. If we start from the night sacrifice to greet God, we usually hold five days and nights; if we start from the mountain God sacrifice to send God to stop, it lasts for more than 20 days; if we start from the wine brewing to calculate, it lasts for as long as one month.

The procedure of the Dragon Boat Festival in Jiangling began with the production of divine wine. On April 5 of the lunar calendar, people brew divine wine with rice and rice melodies distributed by the old government hall of Qishitang in Jiangling to prepare for the Dragon Boat Festival. On April 15, they held the sacrifice of the gods of the Daguanling Mountains and the sacrifice of the gods of the State Teacher City. After the sacrifice, they saw a section of divine wood and hung the green and red satin on it. Then, under the guidance of the divine wood, they formed a parade to welcome the gods. At the beginning of May of the lunar calendar In the evening of the third day, she returned to the City God Temple (Zhengs daughter) of Jiangling State Teacher to accept the Fengan Festival, which is the Evening Festival of the Dragon Boat Festival. After the sacrifice, the God of Guanling Mountain and the God of Shicheng were sent to Nandachuan Open-air Ceremony. From the fourth to the seventh day of junior middle school, the morning ritual is held every day. There are two kinds of sacrificial ceremonies for the Dragon Boat Festival in Jiangling, namely Confucian-style sacrificial rites and witchcraft-custom sacrificial rites. Confucian rituals are conducted in the form of reading Chinese prayers. The contents of the rituals involve disaster relief, health and tranquility, cure of diseases, harvest of agriculture and fishery, flourishing of livestock, etc. After the Confucian sacrifice, the witchcraft sacrifice ceremony accompanied by singing and dancing drama performances began until late at night.

South Koreas declaration of the Dragon Boat Festival in Jiangling was officially confirmed by UNESCO as works of human legends and intangible heritage on 24th. Folk people began to emerge: the argument that the dispute between China and South Korea over the Dragon Boat Festival application for heritage ended with the victory of South Korea.

Experts refute rumors

In response, Gao Bingzhong, secretary-general of the Chinese Folklore Society and professor of Peking University, told reporters that the Dragon Boat Festival in Jiangling, South Korea, is not the same as our Dragon Boat Festival. South Koreas Dragon Boat Festival is actually composed of dance, Shaman sacrifice, folk art exhibition and so on, which is different from Chinese eating dumplings, rowing dragon boats and commemorating Quyuan. The only similarity is the time frame, which is held during the Dragon Boat Festival in China, and the specific dates are different.

The first is to misunderstand the purpose of intangible cultural heritage declaration, and the second is to confuse application for heritage with registered trademarks. The application for heritage is to put forward the representative works of culture so that the whole world can know and share them. This is different from trademark registration. It does not mean that the Dragon Boat Festival in Jiangling, South Korea, was successful, but that the Chinese would pay for it after the Dragon Boat Festival.

Dr. Song Junhua, of the Center for the Study of Chinas Intangible Cultural Heritage, Sun Yat-sen University, said that the Dragon Boat Festival in Jiangling, South Korea, was not the same as the Dragon Boat Festival in China. After the successful application of Korean heritage, the Dragon Boat Festival in China could still be applied for. Therefore, there is no dispute between the two countries on the application for heritage and the concept of winning by South Korea. The media seems to be intentionally hyping this topic to attract attention.

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