在中国大陆,广东、江西、福建三省交界的闽粤赣三角地区,居住着客家人。 在越南、马来西亚、新加坡、印度尼西亚等地,有不少客家人华侨,在泰国、老挝、印度及欧美国家也有不少客家人居住。 他们虽然背井离乡,身在异乡,但对祖籍、亲情依然怀有深厚的感情。 这种强烈的“根”意识和对宗族的强烈认同感与其他民族、民族相比是很特别的。 当然,随着历史的变迁,这种根意识和宗族观念所涵盖的内容和表现形式也有所不同。 比如,原有的优秀传统文化内涵有的得到强化,有的得到淡化,而原有的负面文化内涵却没有出现。 一侧,也慢慢凸显出来。 本文试图通过文献整理和田野调查资料来分析这些现象,审视其产生的原因及其对社会的影响,从而重新认识这些传统文化。

如今,大多数人都认同客家人起源于东晋至唐宋时期。 由于非汉族势力进入中原引起的民族纠纷,以及历代农民起义造成的社会动荡,中原和江油的达官显贵、将相、富商乃至平民百姓,家人、亲戚,尽量多走动,扶老携幼,一起搬家。 一批批汉族移民从山西、河南出发,经皖南、赣北,最终定居在赣南、闽西、粤东的广大山区。

确实,当时中国的土地只有闽南和粤东,东面大海,北面峻岭。 于是,这群难民的先行者就聚集在这里; 而且因为这些难民的文化水平普遍较高,而且经济条件也比较优越。 其语言习俗保存完好,历久不衰。 事实上,他们成为了当时这一地区发展的英雄! 过了很长一段时间,这些难民才简单地安定下来。 但当地原住民却称这些难民为“客家”,因粗俗而称他们为“客家”。 随着时间的推移,原住民(如畲族)逐渐消融。 可以说,这就是今天“客家人”的起源。

正是因为客家人来自中原汉族,有着中华民族深厚的文化传统,也因为历代社会动乱造成的这个族群的流动,以及客家人的生存条件。发展创业,产生了客家人独特的根意识和宗族观念。 例如,一代又一代的迁徙,给后人带来了疑问:“客家人从何而来?” 团结一致,团体凝聚力。 根源意识和族群观念也随着客家群体的发展而形成和发展。

一、客家人根源意识和宗族观念的表达

1. 孝敬祖先

每个人都想知道自己从哪里来,这是人性的一部分。 客家人对祖先的尊崇,从家谱中可见一斑。 以下是一些引述:

谢家谱记载:

——周宣王将姜泰的后裔沈伯托付给歇邑(即河南),子孙便以地为姓。 谢氏是南阳、陈留的名门望族,故名“陈留堂”。

——有一副对联:世家穿鸟衣,名人戴凤毛。

——谢安、谢玄也是谢邑出身,同样是陈留、太康的望族。 在客家祖先中,谢氏对这位祖先的认可是有其道理的。

宋朝景延年间,江西赣州宁州府谢信追随文新国(文天祥)秦王,收复眉州,被任命为眉州都尉,随后定居向下。

广东《大埔百侯杨氏族谱》记载:

——阳(yang),源于杨通。 春秋战国时期,晋国大夫杨通(殷邑),字叔相,是著名的贤臣。 封地在阳(山西洪洞东南),又称阳邑。 其子名石沃,家姓杨。 杨十我和七夕的后人七英是好朋友。

——春秋战国时期,有哲学家杨朱; 东汉有太尉杨震、文学家杨修。 北周时期,宰相杨坚杀周景帝自立,建立隋朝。 父子称帝37年; ETC。; 宋代名将杨业(号称杨灵公)、杨延昭、诗人杨万里; 杨维嘉,元代文学家、书法家; 杨慎,明代文学家。 〔2〕

2、注重族规和家训

为了规范社会道德,维护社会秩序和宗族利益,不同姓氏往往制定严格的宗规。 老祖宗常常流传下来“家训”,成为不成文的法律,具有很强的威慑力和约束力。 以下引述广东省大埔白侯杨氏族谱中的几段内容

家庭训练和规则

明家训,严规戒律,使族人知法而行善,知所畏惧而不为恶,激励百姓做好人。

家庭规则和培训

孝顺父母,遵循朱熹的格言

父母是天地,服从父母就是顺从天地,违背父母就是违背天地。 所以,孝为先,养育之恩永远不报。 孝顺就会生出孝子,不孝则生出不孝子。 只顾妻儿而不赡养父母的人,就像禽兽一样。 尊重老人、关爱儿童,是每个人的榜样。 虐待父母的人将受到家庭法和国家法律的惩罚。

兄弟

兄弟是兄弟,有血有肉。 世界上最稀有的人是兄弟。 兄弟之间,或因言语伤害,或因财产纠纷,或因听信妻子谗言,弱者就会成为贝类,甚至血肉之躯也会被杀害。 大案重伤打官司,互相打官司; 小案日夜抱怨。 一时的愤怒会持续一生。 所谓的家里打架,可能会导致家庭的毁灭,或者交不到朋友,这都会成为父母的过错。 为什么你需要生孩子? 作为人,我们应该对待朋友如兄弟,我们应该比别人更和谐。 兄弟同属血脉,何不比朋友好。

和氏族

宗族是指具有同一宗族和祖先的人。 虽有远近、高低之别,但皆出自同一人之手。 故姚颠曰:九氏和,则周氏为大爵。 同姓氏族之间的友谊源远流长。 当今世道败坏,竟有人胁迫富贵,憎恶贫贱,欺强凌弱,不思富贵,身在祖宗身后? 如此看来,利害共存,息息相关。 将同一事物视为一个身体是可以的。 凡是本族之人,伤害宗族、欺凌弱小,都会受到家法、国法的惩罚。

万国富

纳税的人也是朝廷的国民。 按时足额缴纳税款是公民的义务。 拒缴税款、不接受税款,有损于自己的人格。 违法诈骗。 如果对农村造成损害,情节严重的,将依法追究法律责任。 我们所有宗亲都应该认真完成分配给他们的税赋,这就是报效国家的典范。

勤俭节约

勤俭节约的人,是立家之本,是传家之宝。 事业的基础是人生的责任。 如果你勤奋而不节俭,你的财富就会来自奢侈;如果你勤奋而不节俭,你的财富就会来自奢侈; 俭而不勤,富则穷。 世间,名门望族勤俭节约,立业之本,造福子孙是常有的事; 而他们的子孙却大肆挥霍,以毁掉家族的财产。 据说,如果勤俭节约,就会富裕繁荣,家庭复兴就不会困难。 男不耕田,女不机器,则好闲厌劳,衣食鲜美。 一旦她懒了,习惯了狂妄,没有资本,她就会失去祖宗的所有财富,拖累她的衣服和食物。 我家族的所有成员都必须勤劳、节俭。

勤奋读书

老祖宗的教诲代代相传,勤俭节约,教导我们的子孙走正道。 读之适耕,乃良策,耕耕之读者,重获新生。 王政中最重要的是,农桑大学首先必须有德。 俗话说:金子出土,一言胜千言。 古人又云:少年不努力,老了悲惨。 只要有强大的意志,必有一条路为你开。 一个人如果不耕种,他就会挨饿。 又说:你的子孙无论多么愚昧,都必须读经。 我所有的人都应该努力工作,努力学习。

葬礼

那些向哀悼者献祭的人应该小心追随过去的重要事件。 哀其一切礼,献其一切诚。 父母在世时应尽力赡养他们,死后应节俭丧事。 没有钱就不必大办,葬礼也不必简朴,也不必俭朴、标新立异。 我们家族的所有成员都应该谨慎哀悼。

苏桂门婚姻需谨慎

闺阁是发展之源,家规必须废除。 男人上大学就结婚,女孩上大学就结婚,这是很平常的事。 破除男尊女卑的旧观念,提倡男女平等。 娶女儿是人伦的开始,婚姻切不可马虎。 男女之间的婚姻不能代替安排。 娶女儿就选贤婿,娶儿媳就选贤妇。 不要考虑厚重的嫁妆,或者过多的嫁妆,这会伤害子孙后代。 我所有族人都应该一起敬畏。

安本芬

那些有责任的人,才是人生该做的事。 未老者,不能享受晚年之福;未富者,不能享受财富之福;尚未为官的人,不能享受官场之福。 一切都应在其内进行,不得以做事之名违背正义,而谋利谋耻。 人要通过青春变老,享受与年龄相符的生活,提前享受生活,勤劳勇敢,一生富足。 保持安全并决心做一个男人。 好逸恶劳,贪享乐,毁了自己。 我家族的所有成员都应该共同避免这样做。

禁止

遵守法律、服务大众,是保护自己的主要方式。 破坏原则违背正义,亵渎身体侮辱亲人。 工、农、商、学、军各有各的职业,为官、为民服务,这是社会的分工。 偷盗、抢劫、嫖娼,为恶,法律所不允许。 作为一个人,你永远不应该把自己的幸福建立在他人的痛苦之上。 眼不能见恶色,耳不能闻恶声。 老幼有别,老幼各有区别,尊老敬贤,是一种社会美德。 贪爱赌博,是盗窃的根源。 我族是忠心世子,世宗无罪,岂容不肖子孙浪子。 我部落的所有成员都应该立即被禁止。

积极的家庭训练

孝敬父母、敦仁、和睦宗族、尊重上级、亲戚、兄弟姐妹、夫妻、爱子

家训严:婚姻重文化、热爱科学、尊师重学、敬邻避是非

忠诚、亲情、爱情、友情、重修养、读书、尚勤俭

崇尚文明齐俗 恭喜必须庆贺 丧事必须纠正 解决困难必须帮助 讲团结和平

家庭规则

父母不准违背道德,夫妻不准互相欺凌,损害家庭

不许不孝不孝,不许包办婚姻骗钱

不允许歧视兄弟姐妹和嫂子。 血表婚姻不准影响子孙

宗族之间无淫乱行为,无奢侈、娼妓、贪污之风俗

不虐待孩子,重男轻女不许放纵孩子,父母不是犯罪

不游手好闲,不工作,不搞是非,不报复,歪曲事实

铺张浪费、浪费和腐败是不允许的。 如果存在故意违反诉讼公理的情况

盗窃、赌博等违法行为均不得发生。

不做风骚无良的恶霸族恶霸

不煽动诽谤滋事,大家遵纪守法,永远幸福快乐

不许包庇坏人,陷害好人。 如果你忽视它们并沉迷于不法行为,

不允许醉酒滋事、扰乱秩序。 轻则造成财产损失,重则死亡。

不允许随波逐流、越轨。 这是家族为了表示诚意而制定的规定。

不损害公益,充实自己,造福自己。 请您遵照执行,别忘了保佑您的子孙后代。

3. 弘扬尊重祖先、家庭、孝敬兄弟的精神

不但家谱、家训中有无数的戒律、训示,而且树立了圣贤、贞女、孝妻的形象,记录了孝弟的忠诚守信,为后人效仿。 以下是上述杨家谱的一些摘录:

——罗氏,钟宜二房之妻,凤郎弈琴之女,十七岁时,翁氏去世,刘姑姑瘫痪多病。 他日夜侍奉,把美味的食物送到他的手里,但听到呻吟声,他就冲到床边,只要被揉捏、扶着,他就会安然入睡,然后退去。 夫兄四人年纪尚幼,衣履破烂,便亲自补缝苦纺,以供养皇帝。 父母在此,不敢归宁,或归邪留宿。 当他的父母把他留给他时,他说:“我肯定我睡不好觉。” 十年来我孜孜不倦地工作。 阿姨不,大家表示哀悼。 她认为她有德行,便将她报到祠堂,牌匾上写着:“孝妻”。

——丁氏,孟亨之妻,忠义二房,海洋管树之女。 其姑姑清乾隆二年患风痹,手脚不能动。 一边吃饭,坐着,躺着,打理一切,洗漱,喝水,做其他事情。 夜以继日的工作,也没有多少遗憾。 孝道的行为是纯洁的、真诚的,而且是长久的。 乾隆十三年,姑姑去世,行丧秋礼。 族人对她的工作十分重视,经常去祠堂祭拜,还升职加奖金。 为孝女制作牌匾。

——莲氏,忠义大宅大田夫人,黄兰书女婿、儿媳,元年回杨家,联姻频繁,跨行者有或无,叔父与姑姑称孝,生子成才,三岁就去世。时年二十六岁,家贫,婆婆先去世。 他决心继续守寡,他说:“照顾亲人和孤儿是死者的责任。” 古土哭泣,孝养尽职。 甲寅、乙卯,山贼偷走了他们的头发,把顾乙外一家带到了黄澜楼。 当他听说小偷来了,他就带着孩子摇摇晃晃地走了。 其辈恶子哭声欲杀,曰:“遇贼必死,怎忍杀夫尹?” 他进入了深谷,躲进了森林,建筑被毁,只剩下他母子俩。 甲子翁死后,其丈夫、弟弟相继去世,葬于淀湖营。 家人不好意思支持门户,举行祭祀。 勤织养物,辛苦了五十二年。 七十七十岁了。 孙庆后裔中,为乾隆壬申恩科举委员。

八祖智斋公行

祖考从事公共事务,禁忌准确,字号大佑,号知斋。 他也是乐道公的第三个儿子。 乐道公死得很早。 他对朋友尽孝,保持祖先的旧思想。 他试图支持自己的欲望却未能抓住,抱住风树,心怀余恨。 当时他继承了祖父的遗志,家境富裕,于是被国子监任命到布依亲王宫任职。 他能把关节从下往下折叠,用礼仪检查身体。 他看上去并不富有或高贵。 人们生性慷慨、充满爱心,喜欢给予。 从氏族贫穷时,到追赶当地黑帮成员,再到帮助鳏夫、鳏夫,甚至乞丐。 顺序清晰、有序。 (3)

4、重视丧葬仪式

客家先民认为,遗弃父母遗骸是最大的不孝。 因此,它们在迁徙时背上背着骨头。 到达新居后,尸骨再次洗净晾干,放入“金罂粟”中,然后重新安葬。 重埋父母骨骸,请风水师选择龙脉好的山地,择吉日。 对祖先的记忆尤为突出。 有的年份有春、秋两次祭祀。 立春时在祠堂祭祀祖先,农历八月初一在墓地祭祀。 当时,全族祭祀结束后,齐聚墓前饮酒,表现出异常的虔诚。 今天看来,这些行为几乎是一种宗教礼仪,尤其是对于他们的尸骨来说,洗骨移葬的行为几乎是偏执和病态的,但这些行为和习俗却一代一代地传承了下来。 经过长期潜移默化的影响,坟墓已经成为祖先的象征和家族力量的载体。 当所有族人前往墓地祭奠时,他们仍然隐约感觉到祖先在监视着他们,他们的鬼魂仍然在他们身边徘徊。 此时此地,你必须想到自己肩上的责任,为家庭带来荣耀已经成为一种信念和目标。 这些习俗成为团结每个家庭成员的精神。 一年一度的祭祀活动,无疑一次又一次强化了家族观念的根意识。

5、重视血统传承

客家人的祖先非常重视子孙的血和食物。 下面是关于“葛坑”的一个传说,从中可以看出客家人对血的重视。

您不妨记录一下原文:

昔日黄巢造反,挥刀翻山越岭,动不动就杀人。 当时,一个聪明的女人和一个男孩正在逃亡,在路上遇到了黄巢。 奇怪的是,他背着年长的,却并排背着年幼的,因为他在敲他的背。 那妇人不知遇见的是黄朝业,对她说道:“听说黄朝业叛乱,到处杀人,天天都来;哥哥是孤儿,父母双亡,他害怕了。”被盗贼夺去,血被断了,所以背在身上;我既然有儿子,不敢丢下侄子,就带着他一起走。”朝贾齐贤安慰他,说:“别害怕! 超等人大乱,被葛藤吓坏了。 他们赶紧回到家,把葛藤挂在门上。 窝里的兵到了,就停止战斗。”妇人归去,焦急地住着山坑口,长满了葛藤,士兵们从窝里经过,都是因为窝里下令不许杀戮。悬着的葛藤,却不敢进去,因为人在坑里不会死。后人把这个地方称为葛藤坑。如今,全国各地的客家人都住在葛藤坑。〔4〕

这透露出一个信息:客家人的祖先非常重视血统的传承,认为如果没有子嗣,就会断绝香火和血食。 因此,每个家庭都非常重视生儿子。 每年正月十五元宵节,要把当年出生的新男孩的名字写在灯笼上,高高地挂在祠堂里。 姓名。 当一个新生男婴满月时,这就像一场盛大的庆祝活动。 在氏族祭祀期间,男孩的出生也受到特别鼓励。 用蒸田租来的粮食做的祭品中,有糯米糕(每块近半斤),还有形状像男性生殖器的丁子糕(也有生男孩的意思)。 可分为四个糯米糕和两个丁子糕,但妇女没有。 这样,家里男人多了,就得用大布袋来接待。 “早生儿”、多生儿子已成为客家人的强烈追求。 氏族的强大还取决于人口的繁荣。 早生多子,不但长大后生产力提高,而且在族群之间、姓氏之间的争斗中,也能表现出强大的战斗力。

6、重视子孙后代的教育

客家祖先历来重视教育,从客家童装就可以看出:“蛤蟆女人,嘿嘿嘿,不读书,无老婆”。 为了保证家里的孩子能读书写字,有一条宪法:用祖上留下的祖产买地,赚取利润。 所得的田租和利息,不仅用于祭祀、修建祠堂,还用于聘请私塾教师、奖励宗族子弟读书。 直至解放前夕,仍实行祖传蒸田的租金。 规定,进入初中的孩子每年可以领取一定数量的租粮,升入高中的孩子每年可以领取更多的租粮以支付学费。 我们可以从上述《杨家谱》的记载中得到佐证:

孝寺蒸味书序

始祖十一郎,初居大埔白后乡。 历经四个朝代,历时五六百年,传承十余代。 孝思寺由十二代孙南禄公创建,其子神斋公完成。 《相思》记载中,有一定的相村祭祀田地,是赖氏前辈成熟后先行管理的。 他们减少和增加土地数量,总共租了一定数量的土地,记录在册上。 祭祀在立冬举行,扫墓在清明节前一天举行。 祭祀之日,摆设多少筵席、多少豆子、牲畜多少、器皿的顺序。 另外,图案中其余带有阔子姓氏的人才,都是用来激励和奖励弟子于廷举、于向杰、于南宫道里初试时的才华。

忠义大尊公起身蒸尝序杨志绪

过去,人们在四个季节祭祀祖先,现在只在春秋两季祭祀。

一岁有一次祭,仪式缺失,更无夫祭之说。 仁慈孝顺的儿子,人人都有同情心,就是怎么舍得投入怀里。 自八世祖智斋公以来,分赐丁繁衍五户,人文昌盛,人人建蒸馔,赏赐荣华富贵。 年初,一群春节,顾念子虽然聪明,却没有在父亲面前吃饭。

第五、六、七代未祭祀,以荐香香,隐居之理,故不必忧虑。 五房孙干辩称,到了夏天收割的时候,各人出去狂战,从苍腾中选出了一个人,就是董丽。 、产生兴趣、创造并品味这片土地。 (5)

由于一些族人通过租地支付学费,贫困的男孩也能上学,为家族赢得名声和荣耀。 这种鼓励和理解代代相传,久而久之,客家地区就形成了重视教育的氛围。 就连不识字的客家妇女也会说:“勒紧裤腰带也要让孩子读书”、“我要讨饭,我要孩子读书”。

7.作为一个群体生活在一起

在客家山区,由于由北向南的迁徙较其他民族晚,所以相对肥沃平坦的地区,最先被广府族和闽南族人民所开辟。 他们只能定居在生活环境较差的山区。 山区尚未开发,荒野中经常出现野生动物,族群、姓氏、族群之间经常发生武装冲突,争夺生产资源。 恶劣的生存环境,需要群体聚居,加强防御,于是外龙坞、土楼、方楼、圆楼应运而生。 一家人住在龙屋或土楼里,每天同在一个屋檐下,喝同一口井,一起供奉祖先牌位,一起在祠堂读书。 他们面临共同的危险,拥有共同的命运。 生活中,邻里之间的关系会更加密切,互助合作也会更好。 日常生活中,称呼叔叔、叔叔、叔叔、叔叔,语言相同,习俗相同。 相同的心理特征、信仰观念、道德规范,尊崇祖先、和谐宗族的宗族观念不断强化。 这种生活方式也将增强宗族之间的凝聚力。

8. 共同的习惯信仰

客家先民聚居在一起,因此保留了大量从中原带来的官话,以及原有的文化信仰和习俗。 例如,崇尚忠、孝、义,信仰多神教,信奉观世音菩萨、三山王、耻祖、叔伯、何仙姑等,他们以祖宗为荣,认为“学问出众,出类拔萃”。为官”和“读书为官”。 他们相信,只有这样,才能荣耀祖先。 如此无数次的重复,更加强化了氏族的概念。

From the eight aspects roughly listed above, it can be seen that the Hakka people’s root consciousness and clan concepts not only inherit the traditions accumulated by the Chinese nation for thousands of years, but also develop in the living environment and development of their own ethnic group. , and it has a unique brand of Hakka ethnic origin.

2. The Inheritance and Variation of Root Consciousness and Clan Conception in Today’s Times

Nowadays, the older generation of Hakkas, especially the overseas Chinese, who are in their seventies and eighties, not only inherit the pioneering spirit of their ancestors, they wander around and settle down everywhere. They follow the ancestral motto of “a foreign country becomes a hometown after a long time” and start a family in a new place of residence. At the same time, it also inherits the fine tradition of Hakka ancestors respecting their ancestors and Muzu. Many people pack a bag of soil and seeds from their hometown when they leave home, take their ancestral shrines and even their altars and Buddha statues at home, and sail across the ocean to foreign countries together. They keep in mind the teaching of their ancestors: “It is better to sell the ancestor’s land than to sell the ancestor’s words”. No matter what language environment you are in, do not forget to speak Hakka when communicating with family members. Even if the daughter-in-law or son-in-law of many old overseas Chinese is from another ethnicity or country, they must speak Hakka when they return home. They still like to live in groups abroad, and they also build dragon houses. For example, there are Hakka settlements in Singapore and Malaysia. In the places where the new Hakka immigrants are located, many place names also follow the names of the Hakka ancestral lands. For example, there is also Da Po in Hong Kong, and there is also Da Po Township in Chiayi County, Taiwan. Meizhou was called “Jiaying Prefecture” in the old days, and people who immigrated to Taiwan named it “Jiadong”. It is true that new immigrants are unwilling to forget their ancestral home for a moment. Similarly, they follow the teachings of their parents, respect their ancestors and family, honor their parents, and love their brothers and sisters. Although they live in a difficult foreign country, they still try their best to save money and send it back to their hometown to support their parents, wives and children and worship their ancestors. To this day, many of the older generation of overseas Chinese are still doing their best to help their brothers and nephews in their hometown, including building houses, repairing tombs, paying for their sons and nephews to study, and investing in production. In order to develop and strengthen the power of the clan, once they gain a firm foothold abroad, they will take their brothers and nephews out to join the business. Most of them are family businesses, and they trust their relatives more than others. The older generation of overseas Chinese, who have worked hard for decades abroad and have achieved success, never forget to repay their hometown and donate money to pave roads, build bridges, build schools and hospitals in their hometown. Some parents passed away prematurely, and the old overseas Chinese believed that although they “couldn’t serve a bowl of soup” to their parents, they should live a good life in the underworld after death. Therefore, the old overseas Chinese attach great importance to returning home to repair their parents’ tombs (also known as Fengshui). The reason why they attach great importance to sacrifices is that on the one hand, they believe that they have not fulfilled their filial piety and have a compensatory mentality; on the other hand, they also hope that their parents in the underworld can bless their descendants in the underworld to continue to prosper and have more children and grandchildren. The older generation of overseas Chinese is also very enthusiastic about building ancestral halls and genealogy. Their love for family expanded to love for clan, and then to love for hometown elders. This all comes from the education of the root consciousness of “respecting the ancestors and the clan” that was received from an early age. Although they are in a foreign country, they not only retain but also carry forward these traditional cultures. They know very well: “Without the mountains and rivers of my hometown, I would not be able to grow up, and I would not be what I am today.” Their understanding of “roots” is both sincere and solid. In order to prevent future generations from forgetting their ancestral roots, many people take their children back to their hometowns every year to trace their roots and ask about their ancestors. Let the children know the place where their parents were born, the room where their parents were born, and the tombs of their grandparents, everything becomes real and intimate. Many old overseas Chinese leave their careers to their children and grandchildren and return to their hometowns to spend their old age. They call this “the fallen leaves returning to their roots.”

But we have to see that today’s younger generation of Hakkas have much less awareness of respecting their ancestors and their clan than the older generation. The concept of “having more children, bringing happiness” is completely negated, and they will no longer live in Tuweilou. They not only speak Hakka, but also learn Mandarin and Cantonese Hokkien. They are not very concerned about clan affairs and believe that they have little to do with their own vital interests. They don’t care too much about editing family trees. They can still show filial piety to their parents and grandparents, but if they go further up, they may not even know their names, and in fact they don’t want to ask. As for hall couplets, hall names, clan rules, family mottos, village rules, folk covenants, and ancestral precepts, they know little or nothing about them. These rules and regulations have no binding force on them. Although they also participate in ancestor worship activities with their parents, they actually do not believe in ghosts and gods. During the sacrifice, the old people kowtowed three times and worshiped nine times very devoutly, while the young people just bowed their hands, even with their hips akimbo, and stood by as spectators. As for the construction of ancestral temples and ancestral tombs, they will not pay attention to them. If people outside are willing to send money back, they will do it, otherwise they will be thrown aside. As for the recognition of blood relatives, it is also different from the elders. Rich overseas Chinese will have many relatives, uncles, uncles, uncles, aunts, aunts, uncles, and uncles who are constantly calling each other, while poor overseas Chinese will not necessarily be affected by their relatives even if they are very close flesh and blood compatriots. A warm reception may be met with a cold reception. They just talk about the word “blood”, but the weight in their hearts is much smaller than that of the elders. In the past twenty years, people’s values ​​have undergone great changes, and it is no longer realistic to use the clan relationship in the past to maintain family ties. The older generation attaches great importance to blood relatives. When it comes to where a certain person lives, they have to find ways to find out whether they have money or not. But modern people talk about reality, reality, and price. It is using “money” to maintain the relationship between people, rather than using the concept of clan to maintain the relationship. Clan relations rely on the thin veil of the word “money” to maintain, which in itself shows that the power of the clan has become very weak, powerless and fragile.

Why is the concept of the clan of the younger generation indifferent? The reason is that the times have changed, the environment has changed, and the foundation on which clans depend has been lost. We are now in an era of globalization and a competitive society. In order to survive and develop their careers, people need to establish various new interpersonal and social relationships. Family businesses that only trusted relatives in the past are no longer suitable for today’s globalized economy. To develop your business, you cannot just trust your relatives. You must use talented people, people with skills, business knowledge, and management skills, and organize boards of directors and supervisory committees. The family model of the past is no longer in line with the development of society. Therefore, it is no longer suitable for the needs of the times to maintain the relationship between people by clan concept, by blood, and by geography. In the context of economic globalization, the content of economic partners has changed from blood ties and geography in the past, and has been replaced by economic strength, technology, capabilities and trust. In the past, the patriarch had great authority. His authority was based on the ancestral property in the clan, and he had the power to hold sacrifices, economic distribution, rewards for his children’s studies, and the power to punish. Any clan member who violates the clan rules can hold a clan meeting to punish him with grain, beat him, or even expel him from the house. But today, the cornerstones that supported the patriarch collapsed, and the actual interests of maintaining the clan were gone. Now there is no ancestral property, no steaming and tasting fields, no land rent, and it is impossible for the ancestors to run schools in the fields. In the past, no one propagated, enforced, or supervised the family rules, and it no longer had any deterrent and binding force on the children of the family. As for requiring young people to have boys to carry on the family line, this is another empty talk for young people who advocate freedom of love and marriage. They said: “Whether I want to have children is a matter for our husband and wife. I can’t understand how this has anything to do with our ancestors?”

To sum up, the awareness of roots, the concept of clan has changed for the younger generation. If anyone still refuses to communicate with people outside the ethnic group, do business, and refuses to intermarry with people of different ethnic groups and nationalities, he is a person who does not know the current affairs. If anyone only rests on the glory of his ancestors and relies on his wealthy overseas Chinese relatives, without thinking about progress and working hard to create wealth, he will also be abandoned by the times. I heard that now that some people in the younger generation have improved their lives, or have found an overseas Chinese relative to rely on, they are lazy and become a free-spirited and hedonistic person. This behavior of relying on ideas, waiting, relying, and demanding often makes some overseas Chinese feel cold and cold. In particular, there are some young people with low quality and poor performance. They will be affectionate when they are given money. If they are given less money, they will complain and make sarcastic remarks, which makes the overseas Chinese happy and disappointed.

I have also heard that in some places, brothers have turned against each other because of the unfair “finance sharing” of Feng Shui when repairing the tombs of their deceased parents, and even smashed the tombstones of their deceased parents. I also heard that some children and grandchildren pried off the tombstones of their graves because they were not doing well and did not make a fortune, or because someone in the family was sick, or because their parents did not protect them.

All of the above are negative things that have emerged from the changes in clan concepts. What was hidden and subsided in the past has been reversely revealed and strengthened today. The changes in the concept of clan kinship contained in these phenomena all require our attention.

In the genealogy of various Hakka Huang surnames popular in eastern Guangdong, there are often recorded “grandfather poems”:

The other eight sentences:

Steed horses come out of foreign lands, let you stand anywhere

The old country is the hometown, the foreign country is the hometown

Day and night, never forget your relatives and orders, morning and evening must recommend ancestor incense

May the heavens bless the son of Sanqi, Zong Chichang

Eight sentences inside:

Shilang Xiaolao married Wu Zhengqi, wife of Guanshi

Shengxi called Chengjiang Xia County to the west of the Crane’s Nest in Dujin Guaguan

Seventy-three children’s generation is Renchu’s 1998 letter written inscription

Dai Yuan is not without foolishness and wisdom to meet Liu Tongdi. 〔6〕

This poem vividly describes the facts and flowing history of Hakka migration. As the ancestor, I urge my children and grandchildren to not only be brave enough to expand outward and create a new home, but also not forget their ancestors and always remember their legacy. Only in this way can the heaven bless the children and grandchildren. I think this poem is not a reflection of the Hakka people’s roots and clan concepts!

(Author: Liu Jinyun, Institute of Hakka Culture, Peking University, Academic Committee of Beijing Overseas Friendship Association)

笔记:

〔1〕〔4〕Quoted from Tan Yuanheng’s “Hakka Sacred Code”, page 34, page 58, Haitian Publishing House, 1997 edition.

[2] [3] [5] Quoted from pages 489, 493, 553, 558-563 of “The Genealogy of the Yang Family of Baihou in Dapu”, unofficially published in 2003.

[6] Quoted from Huang Majin: “The Biography of Huang Guiqing”, page 220, China Women’s Publishing House, 2002 edition.

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