“Mevleviye是1273年在科尼亚建立的一个禁欲主义苏菲教派,从那里逐渐传播到整个奥斯曼帝国。今天,Mevleviye可以在世界各地的许多土耳其社区找到,但该教派最活跃和最著名的活动中心在科尼亚和伊斯坦布尔。

梅夫列维家族以其旋转舞蹈而闻名。在建议的几个小时的禁食后,漩涡者开始用左脚短时间旋转,用右脚带动身体绕左脚旋转。旋转器的主体应该是柔软的,眼睛睁开但没有聚焦,这样图像就会变得模糊和流动。在他们的舞蹈仪式上,会演奏一种叫做ay›n的特殊音乐曲目。它以声乐和器乐作品的四个部分为基础,由至少一位歌手、一位名叫内森的长笛手、一位鼓手和一位钹手表演。舞蹈演员过去在mevlevi House(mevlevihane)接受1001天的隐居训练,通过练习祈祷、宗教音乐、诗歌和舞蹈,学习道德、行为准则和信仰。培训结束后,他们仍然是该组织的成员,但回到了工作和家庭中。

由于世俗化政策,所有梅夫列维哈内于1925年关闭。土耳其政府再次开始允许表演,尽管只是在公开场合,但在20世纪50年代,限制在20世纪90年代得到放松。一些私人团体正在重建塞马仪式最初的精神和亲密特征。然而,在过去的三十年里,这一传统是秘密进行的,传播的重点是音乐和歌曲,而不是精神和宗教传统,这使得表演失去了部分宗教意义。因此,许多sema仪式不再在传统环境中进行,而是针对旅游观众,并被缩短和简化,以满足商业需求。

2008年度列入人类非物质文化遗产名录。

来源:联合国教科文组织亚太地区非物质文化遗产国际培训中心

 

The Mevleviye is an ascetic Sufi order founded in 1273 in Konya, from where it gradually spread throughout the Ottoman Empire. Today, the Mevleviye can be found in many Turkish communities throughout the world, but the most active and famous centres of the order’s activity are in Konya and Istanbul.

The Mevleviye are renowned for their whirling dances. Following a recommended fast of several hours, the whirlers begin to rotate on their left feet in short twists, using the right foot to drive their bodies around the left foot. The body of the whirler is meant to be supple, with eyes open but unfocused so that images become blurred and flowing. At their dancing ceremonies, or Sema, a particular musical repertoire called ay›n is played. Based on four sections of both vocal and instrumental compositions, it is performed by at least one singer, a flute-player, called neyzen, a kettledrummer and a cymbal player. Dancers used to receive 1,001 days of reclusive training within the mevlevi-houses (mevlevihane), where they learned about ethics, codes of behaviour and beliefs by practising prayer, religious music, poetry and dance. After this training, they remained members of the order but returned to their work and families.

As a result of secularization policies, all mevlevihane were closed in 1925.The Turkish government began to allow performances again, though only in public, in the 1950s, restrictions were eased in the 1990s. Some private groups are re-establishing the original spiritual and intimate character of the Sema ceremony. However, over the thirty years the tradition was practised clandestinely, transmission focused rather on music and songs than on spiritual and religious traditions, which has deprived performances of part of their religious significance. Consequently, many sema ceremonies are no longer performed in their traditional context but for tourist audiences, and have been shortened and simplified to meet commercial requirements.

Included in the list of human intangible cultural heritage in 2008.

Source: UNESCO International Training Center for intangible cultural heritage in the Asia Pacific Region

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