在阿塞拜疆、伊朗、哈萨克斯坦、吉尔吉斯斯坦和土耳其的社区,制作和分享扁平面包的文化具有社会功能,使其能够继续作为一种广泛实践的传统。制作面包(拉瓦什、凯蒂尔玛、朱普卡或尤夫卡)至少需要三个人,通常是家庭成员,每个人都参与面包的准备和烘焙。在农村地区,邻居们共同参与这一过程。传统的面包店也制作面包。它是用tandyr/tanūr(地上的土或石头烤箱)、sāj(金属板)或kazan(坩埚)烘烤的。除了日常饮食之外,在婚礼、出生、葬礼、各种节日和祈祷期间也会分享扁平面包。在阿塞拜疆和伊朗,人们把它戴在新娘的肩膀上,或把它压在新娘的头上,以祝这对夫妇幸福,而在土耳其,则把它送给这对夫妇的邻居。在哈萨克斯坦的葬礼上,人们认为面包应该用来保护死者,而上帝会做出决定,在吉尔吉斯斯坦,分享面包可以为死者提供更好的来世。这种做法通过家庭内部以及从师傅到学徒的参与传播,表达了好客、团结和某些信仰,象征着加强社区归属感的共同文化根源。

2016年度列入人类非物质文化遗产名录。

来源:联合国教科文组织亚太地区非物质文化遗产国际培训中心

 

The culture of making and sharing flatbread in communities of Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey carries social functions that have enabled it to continue as a widely-practised tradition. Making the bread (lavash, katyrma, jupka or yufka) involves at least three people, often family members, with each having a role in its preparation and baking. In rural areas, neighbours participate in the process together. Traditional bakeries also make the bread. It is baked using a tandyr/tanūr (an earth or stone oven in the ground), sāj (a metal plate) or kazan (a cauldron). Besides regular meals, flatbread is shared at weddings, births, funerals, various holidays and during prayers. In Azerbaijan and Iran, it is put on the bride’s shoulders or crumbled over her head to wish the couple prosperity while in Turkey it is given to the couple’s neighbours. At funerals in Kazakhstan it is believed the bread should be prepared to protect the deceased while a decision is made from God and in Kyrgyzstan sharing the bread provides a better afterlife for the deceased. The practice, transmitted by participation within families and from master to apprentice, expresses hospitality, solidarity and certain beliefs that symbolize common cultural roots reinforcing community belonging.

Included in the list of human intangible cultural heritage in 2016.

Source: UNESCO International Training Center for intangible cultural heritage in the Asia Pacific Region

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