“Nha-Nhac(雅乐),意思是“优雅的音乐”,指15世纪至20世纪中叶在越南皇家宫廷演出的各种音乐和舞蹈风格。Nha Nhac(雅乐)通常出现在周年纪念、宗教节日、加冕典礼、葬礼和官方招待会的开幕式和闭幕式上。在越南发展起来的众多音乐体裁中,只有Nha Nhac可以宣称其在全国范围内,并与其他东亚国家的传统有着紧密的联系。Nha Nhac(雅乐)的表演以前有许多穿着华丽服装的歌手、舞者和音乐家。大型管弦乐队包括一个突出的鼓节和许多其他类型的打击乐器,以及各种各样的管乐器乐器。所有表演者都必须保持高度的专注,因为他们被要求仔细地遵循仪式的每一步。

Nha Nhac(雅乐)在黎朝(1427-1788)发展,并在阮王(1802-1945)统治下高度制度化和编纂。作为朝代权力和长寿的象征,Nha Nhac成为朝廷许多仪式的重要组成部分。然而,Nha Nhac(雅乐)的作用不仅限于宫廷仪式的音乐伴奏:它还提供了一种与神和国王交流和致敬的方式,以及传播关于自然和宇宙的知识。

二十世纪震撼越南的事件——特别是君主制的倒台和几十年的战争——严重威胁着Nha Nhac的生存。这种音乐传统失去了宫廷背景,失去了原有的功能。尽管如此,为数不多的几位幸存下来的前宫廷音乐家仍在继续努力保持这一传统。流行仪式和宗教仪式中保留了某些形式的Nha Nhac(雅乐),并作为当代越南音乐的灵感来源。

2008年度列入人类非物质文化遗产名录。

来源:联合国教科文组织亚太地区非物质文化遗产国际培训中心

 

Nha Nhac, meaning “elegant music”, refers to a broad range of musical and dance styles performed at the Vietnamese royal court from the fifteenth to the mid-twentieth century. Nha Nhac was generally featured at the opening and closing of ceremonies associated with anniversaries, religious holidays, coronations, funerals and official receptions. Among the numerous musical genres that developed in Vietnam, only Nha Nhac can claim a nationwide scope and strong links with the traditions of other East Asian countries. Nha Nhac performances formerly featured numerous singers, dancers and musicians dressed in sumptuous costumes. Large-scale orchestras included a prominent drum section and many other types of percussion instruments as well as a variety of wind and string instruments. All performers had to maintain a high level of concentration since they were expected to follow each step of the ritual meticulously.

Nha Nhac developed during the Le dynasty (1427-1788) and became highly institutionalized and codified under the Nguyen monarchs (1802-1945). As a symbol of the dynasty’s power and longevity, Nha Nhac became an essential part of the court’s many ceremonies. However, the role of Nha Nhac was not limited to musical accompaniment for court rituals: it also provided a means of communicating with and paying tribute to the gods and kings as well as transmitting knowledge about nature and the universe.

The events that shook Vietnam in the twentieth century – especially the fall of the monarchy and the decades of war – seriously threatened the survival of Nha Nhac. Deprived of its court context, this musical tradition lost its original function. Nevertheless, the few surviving former court musicians continue to work to keep the tradition alive. Certain forms of Nha Nhac have been maintained in popular rituals and religious ceremonies and serve as a source of inspiration for contemporary Vietnamese music.

Included in the list of human intangible cultural heritage in 2008.

Source: UNESCO International Training Center for intangible cultural heritage in the Asia Pacific Region

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